Category Archives: Education

BioPharming for Meds

science tools for study of biology
study of plant biology for medicines

Plant Made Pharmaceuticals, PMP

Bio-engineering – the field of study that utilizes engineering techniques to improve the health and well being of people aka biomedical engineering– Encyclopedia & Dictionary of Medicine & Allied Health.

Bio-Engineers in Bio-Pharmaceuticals

Research and development personnel of Pharmaceutical companies don’t just spend their time in laboratories or out in the field collecting samples. They can be found on plant farms that are specifically designated and segregated from the public.

The farm may be growing alfalfa, corn, duckweed, rice, safflower, tomatoes and tobacco to name a few crops. These crops are used in bio-engineering for new drugs, to combat disease that afflicts people of all ages and ethnic backgrounds.

Bio-engineering requires knowledge from a mix of studies like genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, chemistry, and cell biology. These skills can also be utilized in other industries such as chemical engineering, agriculture, information technology and bio-robotics.  Pathobio-technology refers to the exploitation and modification of pathogens or it’s compounds for beneficial effect.

The use of plants for medical research has found compounds that assist with integration, catalyzers, metabolizing, attachment, and, non-toxicity. It is the ease and edibility of the use and structure of the plants, for recombining and modification, that makes this science exciting and successful.

Exploring plant types

Plants such as the following have been manufactured by pharmaceutical companies for treatment of various illnesses ;

Papaver somniferum – Codeine, treatment of pain

Catharanthus roseus – Vinblastine, treatment of cancer.

Cinchonas officinalis – Quinine, treatment of malaria.

Hyoscyamus niger – Atropine, treatment of iritis, bradycardia.

Digitalis purpurea – Digitalis, treatment of heart conditions.

Beginnings of a Bio-Pharmaceutical Farm

Permission from the government is required by the pharmaceutical companies to open this sort of farm. An application for permits must be submitted. Inspections a few times a year are done. They are never de-regulated.

All equipment is dedicated, meaning that use is specific for the crops and farm only, and, never to be available for public use. These crops are confined for pharmaceutical use only. It is a very tightly controlled industry to maintain safety for both personnel and the public.

Journey into a Science career

A career in these areas of science would be exciting and highly recommended, if you enjoy the idea of helping discover new medicines. Who knows? maybe your son or daughter may find the cure for our worst diseases.

Monetary rewards are great even for new graduates and this type of research, is an ever-evolving and on-going field. Check out the types of pharmacy related science fields at colleges and universities online!

Extra Reading

BioWorld, The Daily Biopharmaceutical News Source

Careers in Biopharmaceutical Sciences 

Biopharmaceutical  Salary

Learning in Motion

I hope you found this article informative and gained some new insight. Please feel free to leave your comments and share your new found knowledge with others. Use the ‘Ask a Question’ form to make a request on a topic of your own interest. It is FREE to subscribe by email or RSS feed.

 AIC\ An Informal Cornr, all rights reserved. Ginsense writes articles on business skills, development, health, science, technology and society and enjoys advocating for independence, security and a better world for all of us.

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Chutes, Gravity and Drag

bear skydiving with chute
Bear sporting Chute jump

A field of science in Physics states, in Newton’s First law: “An object will stay at rest or continue at constant velocity unless acted on by a resultant force“.

No matter what mass an object is falling towards the Earth, science has found that they will fall at the same rate, if no resistance exists, and land at the same time.

So, how do these forces make skydiving, with a parachute, and science of gravity, chutes and drag – so popular?

Learning the Math of Falling

Calculations is done with use of the equations involving force, mass, and acceleration. Studies have shown that acceleration remains constant, for all matter with mass. This formula shows the most basic equation:

F=mg

The breakdown of this equation refers to the following:

F = force, objects being pulled to the Earth
m = mass of the object
g = acceleration rate due to gravity(g = 9.807 meters per second-squared (m/s2) )

Following mathematical rules will have us write out this formula as:

F= m x g

The use of this formula can get far more complex depending on which area of science, one is using it, such as in aeronautics, space sciences, engineering, etc.

The world of skydiving is a popular sport even though it can be a risk to one’s life. Not many can understand ‘why jump from a perfectly good plane?’ but there are enthusiasts who love the extreme sport of skydiving, or BASE jumping – sports requiring one to jump from a plane or off a fixed object (cliff). These are considered extreme sports and may require a fair investment of funds in gear and equipment since rental for a plane may not be anything to sneeze about.

Forces created in Skydiving

On topic, the meeting and creation of forces, involved with deploying a parachute. A person will jump out of a plane and find themselves falling through the skies, gaining speed along the way, since ‘a force of attraction exists between any two objects that have mass and the more mass they have, the greater the force of attraction. The closer they are, the greater the force of attraction will occur‘. I will hazard a guess that this particular stimulus creates a thrilling excitement not found in other sports, such as volley ball.

A parachute is deployed, and the chute creates a surface area, which slows the descent or rate of acceleration. This surface area creates ‘air resistance or drag force‘. The larger the surface area, the slower the descent. This ‘resistance or drag force‘ creates a force that’s opposite to the force of gravity therefore creating a ‘push and pull‘ force that are nearly equal.

Safety in Chute Deployment

The timing of deploying a parachute is important to note aka ‘pull altitude‘. This is due to a shrinking drag force. As one slows down, the drag force gets smaller even if the surface area of air resistance, is larger than one’s weight.

Also important is speed of the chute itself opening, therefore a deploying sequence with equipment is used, to prevent injuries, death or damage to the parachute. This helps to slow deployment of the main ‘canopy‘ along with maintaining a tangle-free ‘chute opening‘. Most skydivers will jump at about 12,500 feet above ground level, allowing for one minute of ‘free falling‘ before deploying their parachute, a minimum of 2000-2500 feet for the more experienced.

Differences between Skydiving and BASE Jumping

The gear and equipment for skydivers and BASE jumpers are NOT the same. BASE jumper gear is designed to deploy quicker and at slower air speeds. BASE jumpers do not have ‘reserve‘ chutes either as the skydivers equipment does. The science involved in these sports may be the same but both are definitely activities, not for the ‘faint hearted‘. Is this where I say being a sports spectator is safe?

Learning in Motion

Physics of Sky Diving

Extra Reading

Gravity Equations Formulas Calculator

Your Guide to Skydiving

United States Parachute Association

I hope you found this article informative. Please feel free to leave your comments, Share your thoughts! or Share this article. Use the ‘Ask a Question‘ form to send me  a request on a topic of your interest, or to say Hello!

Related —-> Communications Satellites Orbit Fly By, what?

Copyright Article all Rights reserved. Ginsense creates and posts articles online about business development, micro business, health, science, technology and advocates on social issues.

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What’s the Alcohol Doing to You?

A 2012 survey revealed that alcohol is consumed by 75% of Canadians. So, what is the alcohol doing to you?

Alcohol is considered as a drug. Alcoholism is a term used to signal the variety of conditions involved with alcohol abuse or dependence.

Alcoholism is considered to be one of the major drug problems in Western society even though it’s been in society for thousands of years for some societies.

Types of Alcoholics

We must also realize that not every alcoholic is the same. Another landmark study (2007), done by The National Institute on Alcoholic Abuse and Alcoholismcreated categories on the sub-types of the alcoholic such as, Young Adult, Young Anti-Social, Functional, Familial (mental illness), Chronic Severe but also includes the ‘high functioning‘ alcoholics, those able to function within their responsibilities, lead a double life.

A few addictions experts are suggesting that 75% -90% are high functioning alcoholics. Shall we learn the the effects of alcohol?

Progression of Alcoholism

Alcoholism progresses the same for every alcoholic and will reveal itself, at different rates. After all, as said earlier, no alcoholic is the same. Alcohol crosses the ‘blood-brain‘ barrier and changes brain cells affecting the central nervous system (CNS) and see or hear the following indications;

  • the brain slows the body down (depressant), prolonged alcohol abuse can permanently impair brain and nerve function
    altered speech
  • foggy memory
  • hazy thinking
  • slurred speaking
  • impaired co-ordination
  • affects the heart, leads to hypertension, heart disease, heart failure and stroke
  • breathing patterns will slow or stop
  • cirrhosis of the liver, scarring the tissue leads to impaired function
  • damage to organs, heart, brain, liver, stomach
  • reduced resistance to infection
  • lower reproductive function and/or impotence/infertility
  • mixing alcohol with other drugs and medications can be fatal

Behaviors of Alcoholism

The behaviors of an alcoholic will depend on the stage of their addiction. There are different definitions for the stages of alcoholism but most will contain the following qualifying criteria:

  1. Social drinker, one or two drinks a day, enough for euphoria
  2. Non-Social drinker, to reduce stress, first sign of dependency, urge to drink at stressful events
  3. Frequent Relief, to escape, stress, feelings, guilt, seek to diminish senses, may steal alcohol
  4. Daily Routine, memory blackouts, hidden drinking (mix beverage with alcohol), tolerance to alcohol effects rises
  5. Full Dependence, find reasons to drink (opportunist), defensive to offers of help, unpredictable mood and behavior changes, loses control over responsibilities, lies, manipulative, avoidance behaviors, tremors,
  6. End Stage, alcohol obsession, deteriorating health, eats less, resents interference, emotionally unpredictable, seizures, tremors, cirrhosis of the liver, dementia
  7. Death
say NO to drugs
say NO to drugs

Differences in Effects of Alcohol for Gender

Differences in body and weight will create differences in tolerance. One person with low body fat will feel effects of alcohol less than a person with higher body fat. A woman has less of the enzyme dehydrogenase (an enzyme that moves a substance to a hydrogen acceptor for break-down), in their stomach.

Also, women tend to have higher body fat and lower water content in their body. Over all, the less you weigh, the more quicker one feels the effects of alcohol. Our bodies can only break down one alcoholic drink per hour.

Personality Changes of Alcoholism

The stages of alcoholism brings personality changes that can range from mild to outright dangerous with the loss of inhibitions.

  • Negative emotions are intensified and responses are apparent with knee-jerk reactions.
  • Paranoia, delusions and hallucinations can lead to endangering self and others. This is due to reduced blood flow to regions in the brain.
  • Aging organs, including the brain, decrease their ability to withstand the effects of alcohol.
  • Medical treatment and neurogenesis may help to resolve these effects but further study is needed.
  • Long term alcohol abuse can still lead to varying degrees of lasting brain damage and/or eventual death.
  • Recovery from alcohol abuse also has a place and begins with first admitting, a problem exists.

Recovery from Alcoholism

A visit to your doctor can helps towards repairing the physical effects. Visiting an alcohol treatment centre and/or Addictions professional, can help towards further understanding your addiction cycle and triggers helps toward learning and applying the available options, to change your life.

Lasting friendships and support can be found through joining Alcoholics Anonymous, AA. One just has to be aware that even if alcohol is removed, one may still exhibit ‘dry drunk‘ behaviors.

The purpose of AA is set up as a ‘self-help‘ group of recovering alcoholics (remove and abstain from alcohol from their daily life) who help support each other, and new members. They help you understand and overcome your dependence and abuse.

Serenity Prayer - AA
Serenity Prayer – AA

Gaslighting – Lies and Truth of Reputation

People have said some bad things about AA but being a member myself, I’ll just say this, you will meet the right people who are ‘strong‘, and with years of sobriety. You’ll have the best down-to-earth, ‘real‘ people for friends. True friends.

They are not a ‘cult‘ but fear drives people to run away, and ‘demonize‘ others even if in reality, they are good people. AA members ‘know‘ that ‘place‘ too.

People do run away from ones who have ‘emotions‘. Sometimes, too much gentleness and kindness breaks down psychological ‘walls‘ we hide behind especially after years of abuse. Alcoholism is known to be accompanied with a mental illness.

Relapse and Forgiveness

Over all, recovery is a choice available to everyone and which can lead, to helping others step out of their own alcohol addiction. You may become strong, and asked to become a ‘Sponsor‘. A chosen ‘Mentor’ to help one through learning to walk the Path of Sobriety.

One last note, people do have relapses and drink again. Some will return, and others move away. Those who are strongest with years of sobriety will help teach, encourage to learn, forgiveness.

Friends will forgive the relapse and welcome you back but most of all, you will learn to forgive yourself, and not be ashamed. Nobody is perfect, it doesn’t exist.

Learning in Motion

how alcohol changes the body

Extra Learning Resources

National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism


Alcoholics Anonymous

Al – Anon Family Groups

I hope you found this article informative. Please feel free to leave your comments and Share with friends and share your comments. Use the Ask a Question form to make a Request on a topic of interest to you, ask to share a guest post, or to say Hello! I hope you visit again.

AIC| An Informal Cornr all rights reserved. Ginsense creates and posts articles online about business development, micro business, health, science, technology and social issues.

 

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