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Chutes, Gravity and Drag

bear skydiving with chute
Bear sporting Chute jump

A field of science in Physics states, in Newton’s First law: “An object will stay at rest or continue at constant velocity unless acted on by a resultant force“.

No matter what mass an object is falling towards the Earth, science has found that they will fall at the same rate, if no resistance exists, and land at the same time.

So, how do these forces make skydiving, with a parachute, and science of gravity, chutes and drag – so popular?

Learning the Math of Falling

Calculations is done with use of the equations involving force, mass, and acceleration. Studies have shown that acceleration remains constant, for all matter with mass. This formula shows the most basic equation:

F=mg

The breakdown of this equation refers to the following:

F = force, objects being pulled to the Earth
m = mass of the object
g = acceleration rate due to gravity(g = 9.807 meters per second-squared (m/s2) )

Following mathematical rules will have us write out this formula as:

F= m x g

The use of this formula can get far more complex depending on which area of science, one is using it, such as in aeronautics, space sciences, engineering, etc.

The world of skydiving is a popular sport even though it can be a risk to one’s life. Not many can understand ‘why jump from a perfectly good plane?’ but there are enthusiasts who love the extreme sport of skydiving, or BASE jumping – sports requiring one to jump from a plane or off a fixed object (cliff). These are considered extreme sports and may require a fair investment of funds in gear and equipment since rental for a plane may not be anything to sneeze about.

Forces created in Skydiving

On topic, the meeting and creation of forces, involved with deploying a parachute. A person will jump out of a plane and find themselves falling through the skies, gaining speed along the way, since ‘a force of attraction exists between any two objects that have mass and the more mass they have, the greater the force of attraction. The closer they are, the greater the force of attraction will occur‘. I will hazard a guess that this particular stimulus creates a thrilling excitement not found in other sports, such as volley ball.

A parachute is deployed, and the chute creates a surface area, which slows the descent or rate of acceleration. This surface area creates ‘air resistance or drag force‘. The larger the surface area, the slower the descent. This ‘resistance or drag force‘ creates a force that’s opposite to the force of gravity therefore creating a ‘push and pull‘ force that are nearly equal.

Safety in Chute Deployment

The timing of deploying a parachute is important to note aka ‘pull altitude‘. This is due to a shrinking drag force. As one slows down, the drag force gets smaller even if the surface area of air resistance, is larger than one’s weight.

Also important is speed of the chute itself opening, therefore a deploying sequence with equipment is used, to prevent injuries, death or damage to the parachute. This helps to slow deployment of the main ‘canopy‘ along with maintaining a tangle-free ‘chute opening‘. Most skydivers will jump at about 12,500 feet above ground level, allowing for one minute of ‘free falling‘ before deploying their parachute, a minimum of 2000-2500 feet for the more experienced.

Differences between Skydiving and BASE Jumping

The gear and equipment for skydivers and BASE jumpers are NOT the same. BASE jumper gear is designed to deploy quicker and at slower air speeds. BASE jumpers do not have ‘reserve‘ chutes either as the skydivers equipment does. The science involved in these sports may be the same but both are definitely activities, not for the ‘faint hearted‘. Is this where I say being a sports spectator is safe?

Learning in Motion

Physics of Sky Diving

Extra Reading

Gravity Equations Formulas Calculator

Your Guide to Skydiving

United States Parachute Association

I hope you found this article informative. Please feel free to leave your comments, Share your thoughts! or Share this article. Use the ‘Ask a Question‘ form to send me  a request on a topic of your interest, or to say Hello!

Related —-> Communications Satellites Orbit Fly By, what?

Copyright Article all Rights reserved. Ginsense creates and posts articles online about business development, micro business, health, science, technology and advocates on social issues.

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Conversations to teach Civic Engagement

Conversations start here
Conversations start here

It’s amazing how one little conversation can change things forever.

Conversation is the ‘exchange of thoughts through informal talking‘, together, but there is also the other quote, ‘talking to oneself‘.

Speaking about ‘civic engagement‘ refers to talking and working as a group (use of collective power) to bring about change in public issues of concern.

Either way, it’s to examine or share, a topic of interest. Discussing a specific topic can lead to learning various outcomes and who’s best for what task.

Discussing Civics with your Family

Meeting at the table has been a favored gathering point and event for family and friends. Conversation can be considered the ‘toast of the party’! Would you agree?

Civics refers to the duties, rights and privileges of citizens. Parents can introduce this topic during evening dinner meals, and discuss with their children, just what is and what isn’t allowed since society has it’s norms, rules and laws, along with the consequences.

Children can learn from these discussions and hopefully, avoid glamorizing or considering, criminal behaviors or acts. It’s preferable to begin with asking questions, to measure the amount of knowledge and starting point versus entering preach or lecture mode.

Learning gets Shared

Parents take on many roles for their children, and one is, as a teacher. Helping children understand their place in society, will help towards developing the child’s personal and intellectual growth.

In turn, they will be able to pass on these lessons learned at home, to their friends. They will also be learning the beginning steps of civic ‘engagement‘. The ability to discuss, as individuals yet act as a collective group, to achieve or address, public concerns.

Parent and child conversations can help develop a child’s intellect and learning to use reason, gain understanding and separate, real from the imaginary, and ground the ego. After all, society works together to uphold their norms, rules, regulations and laws, to function as a nation, and remain in a state of peace, with each other. A child learning this knowledge and skills can develop into a socially well -adjusted adult.

Short on Energy or Time

A few parents may find, they do not spend or make for, any quality time with their children other than giving directions and reinforcing rules. This can be detrimental for both parent and child along with making for a bad day.

Socially maladjusted children can usually be observed as those with behaviors and values that conflict with society norms. Abuse and neglect can have lifelong consequences on a child, which can easily be observed by trained education, and mental health professionals. Local laws may require any suspicions of child abuse and neglect, to be reported.

The idea of teaching a child about rights and responsibilities of adults, and children may be daunting for parents. This can be resolved by taking time, to research the subject online, or visiting the library.

Importance of Open minds, Patience and a Safe environment

A conversation with our child is a two or more person orchestra vs a one-sided conversation, allow for all to contribute. It takes skill to shape and guide a conversation to create meaning, learning and thinking. We can’t forget a dose of humor can lighten a conversation and add fun.

A meaningful conversation in a family can take place when trust and safety exists. Let your next dinner conversation be a learning experience for your children. There are many topics to choose but one should first start with their place in society. One may be influencing a future leader.

Learning in Motion

Extra Learning Resources

Civic Responsibility – A Paper

National Traffic Safety Institute

World Learning Education

I hope you found this article informative. Please feel free to leave your comments and share with your friends and family . Use my ‘Ask a Question‘ form if you have a request on a topic of interest, a guest post, or to say Hello! I hope you visit again.

AIC| An informal Cornr all rights reserved. Ginsense creates and posts articles online about business development, micro business, health, science, technology and advocates on social issues.

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Heart Lesson – Torsades de Pointes

heart issues torsades de pointes
heart waves arrythmia

A healthy heart as we know is a pump that delivers oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood for our bodies to survive.

Our hearts can contract up to 2.5 billion times during a person’s average life. We recognize the heart as one of the most major organs since without it, there’s no life.

Unfortunately, one can be born or acquire ailments that affect our heart, such as ‘Torsades de Pointes‘.

 Learning Heart Arrhythmia

Torsades de pointes refers to a dangerous arrhythmia of the heart. It’s usually not diagnosed or treated correctly, and still a somewhat, difficult condition to identify. Arrhythmias are viewed as a disorder in the normal rhythm and rate of the heartbeat.

Studies have revealed common characteristics of this condition for improved care and treatment depending on which variation exists. These variations refer to congenital or acquired torsades.

Types of Torsades + Heart Rates

Inherited Torsades is due to an inability for ‘ion channels‘ to correctly carry the electrical action/impulse of the heart and acquired version refers to drugs triggering Torsades due to ‘blocking‘ these ion currents. Ion channels describes the flow and rate of electrolytes, sodium and potassium in the heart.

Torsades in action has the heart in a state of ‘polymorphic ventricular tachycardia’. This refers to the heart rate increasing to 150 beats per minute (bpm) and up to 250 bpm. A normal heart rate is anywhere from 60 to 100 bpm.

Athletes can have lower heart rates than 60 bmp. This abnormal heart rate will ‘spontaneously‘ return to a normal beat but can recur and/or progress into ‘ventricular fibrillation ‘(VF) symptoms which can lead to death, if it persists. It is this ‘return to normal‘ action that has made identifying Torsades difficult.

LQTS heart beat wave patterns
LQTS heart beat wave patterns

Onset Signs and Symptoms

Medical research and studies have shown that people with Torsades have their beginnings with ‘fainting‘ due to a drop in blood pressure causing dizziness . Use of an electrocardiogram (ECG) have revealed a ‘long QT interval’ and another term, ‘Long QT Syndrome‘ (LQTS).

A recording of the heart rate may not reveal Torsades in action but definitely that ‘long QT’ or ‘short variant‘ characteristics of Torsades, help provide clues for physicians and health care professionals.

An ECG showing Torsades in action displays an illusion of a swirled rotation (like a ballet dancers’ pirhouette hence it’s name Pointes) on it’s electrical axis, a long and short RR – interval precedes the arrhythmia and follows a premature ventricular contraction (R-on-T PVC). Other symptoms reported are palpitations, rapid pulse, nausea, cold sweats, lightheadedness (short episode) and outright fainting.

Where Torsades gets Found

Torsades is usually found in people that are malnourished, chronic alcoholics, or with hypokalemia (abnormally low potassium), diarrhea, and/or hypomagnesemia (abnormally low magnesium), heart failure, left ventricular hypertrophy (enlarged left ventricle), bradycardia (slow heart rate), hypothermia and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

It is these symptoms and existing disorders that are critical for a physician or health care team to be aware and identify quickly especially before giving medications, known to trigger Torsades.

Torsades can be found in many age groups. When identified in children, it is congenital and may accompany disorders such as Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, Romano-Ward syndrome and triggered by effects of stress, fear or physical exertion (usually prohibited from competitive sports), whearas in adult years, it is considered acquired.

Treatment and Outcomes

Electrolyte disorders are usually the cause of acquired Torsades and treatable with correcting the imbalance and/or removal of triggering medications.

Treatment for Torsades is available and it’s known there are six different variants of Torsades. Effective treatment will depend on identifying the specific ‘genotype‘ which identifies whether it’s  sodium or potassium channels that are affected.

A family physician may refer their client to a cardiologist, electrophysiologist, or geneticist. Again, failure to identify Torsades has been due to it’s ‘return to normal’ activities and complications of persistent ‘ventricular fibrillations‘ that arise.

Continuous Medical Research

 The existence of Torsades has been known for a few years, and further studies at the molecular and cellular levels have provided leaps forward in better care and treatment. The ‘prevalence‘ of Torsades in the general population is an unknown. Could this be a cause of death for the homeless, mentally or medically challenged people, that have occurred when getting tasered by police?

Learning in Motion

Further Learning Resources

 Drugs with Risk of Torsades de Pointes

 My Majors

 Living with Heart Rhythms

 I hope you found this article informative. Please feel free to leave your comments and Share your friends and family. Use the ‘Ask a Question’ form and Send me request on a topic of interest you have, or to say hello.

 All rights reserved by AIC|An Informal Cornr. Ginsense creates and posts articles about business development, micro business, health, science, technology and society.

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