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Chutes, Gravity and Drag

bear skydiving with chute
Bear sporting Chute jump

A field of science in Physics states, in Newton’s First law: “An object will stay at rest or continue at constant velocity unless acted on by a resultant force“. So, how do these forces make skydiving, with a parachute, and science of gravity and drag – so popular?

No matter what mass an object is falling towards the Earth, science has found that they will fall at the same rate, if no resistance exists, and land at the same time.

Learning the Math of Falling

Calculations is done with use of the equations involving force, mass, and acceleration. Studies have shown that acceleration remains constant, for all matter with mass. This formula shows the most basic equation:

F=mg

The breakdown of this equation refers to the following:

F = force, objects being pulled to the Earth
m = mass of the object
g = acceleration rate due to gravity(g = 9.807 meters per second-squared (m/s2) )

Following mathematical rules will have us write out this formula as:

F= m x g

The use of this formula can get far more complex depending on which area of science, one is using it, such as in aeronautics, space sciences, engineering, etc.

The world of skydiving is a popular sport even though it can be a risk to one’s life. Not many can understand ‘why jump from a perfectly good plane?’ but there are enthusiasts who love the extreme sport of skydiving, or BASE jumping – sports requiring one to jump from a plane or off a fixed object (cliff). These are considered extreme sports and may require a fair investment of funds in gear and equipment since rental for a plane may not be anything to sneeze about.

Forces created in Skydiving

On topic, the meeting and creation of forces, involved with deploying a parachute. A person will jump out of a plane and find themselves falling through the skies, gaining speed along the way, since ‘a force of attraction exists between any two objects that have mass and the more mass they have, the greater the force of attraction. The closer they are, the greater the force of attraction will occur‘. I will hazard a guess that this particular stimulus creates a thrilling excitement not found in other sports, such as volley ball.

A parachute is deployed, and the chute creates a surface area, which slows the descent or rate of acceleration. This surface area creates ‘air resistance or drag force‘. The larger the surface area, the slower the descent. This ‘resistance or drag force‘ creates a force that’s opposite to the force of gravity therefore creating a ‘push and pull‘ force that are nearly equal.

The timing of deploying a parachute is important to note aka ‘pull altitude‘. This is due to a shrinking drag force. As one slows down, the drag force gets smaller even if the surface area of air resistance, is larger than one’s weight.

Also important is speed of the chute itself opening, therefore a deploying sequence with equipment is used, to prevent injuries, death or damage to the parachute. This helps to slow deployment of the main ‘canopy‘ along with maintaining a tangle-free ‘chute opening‘. Most skydivers will jump at about 12,500 feet above ground level, allowing for one minute of ‘free falling‘ before deploying their parachute, a minimum of 2000-2500 feet for the more experienced.

Differences between Skydiving and BASE Jumping

The gear and equipment for skydivers and BASE jumpers are NOT the same. BASE jumper gear is designed to deploy quicker and at slower air speeds. BASE jumpers do not have ‘reserve‘ chutes either as the skydivers equipment does. The science involved in these sports may be the same but both are definitely activities, not for the ‘faint hearted‘. Is this where I say being a sports spectator is safe?

Learning in Motion

Physics of Sky Diving

Extra Reading

Gravity Equations Formulas Calculator

Your Guide to Skydiving

United States Parachute Association

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Related —-> Communications Satellites Orbit Fly By, what?

Copyright Article (C) 2021, all Rights reserved. Ginsense creates and posts articles online about business development, micro business, health, science, technology and advocates on social issues.

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Heart Lesson – Torsades de Pointes

heart issues torsades de pointes
heart waves arrythmia

A healthy heart as we know is a pump that delivers oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood for our bodies to survive.

Our hearts can contract up to 2.5 billion times during a person’s average life. We recognize the heart as one of the most major organs since without it, there’s no life.

Unfortunately, one can be born or acquire ailments that affect our heart, such as ‘Torsades de Pointes‘.

 Learning Heart Arrhythmia

Torsades de pointes refers to a dangerous arrhythmia of the heart. It’s usually not diagnosed or treated correctly, and still a somewhat, difficult condition to identify. Arrhythmias are viewed as a disorder in the normal rhythm and rate of the heartbeat.

Studies have revealed common characteristics of this condition for improved care and treatment depending on which variation exists. These variations refer to congenital or acquired torsades.

Types of Torsades + Heart Rates

Inherited Torsades is due to an inability for ‘ion channels‘ to correctly carry the electrical action/impulse of the heart and acquired version refers to drugs triggering Torsades due to ‘blocking‘ these ion currents. Ion channels describes the flow and rate of electrolytes, sodium and potassium in the heart.

Torsades in action has the heart in a state of ‘polymorphic ventricular tachycardia’. This refers to the heart rate increasing to 150 beats per minute (bpm) and up to 250 bpm. A normal heart rate is anywhere from 60 to 100 bpm.

Athletes can have lower heart rates than 60 bmp. This abnormal heart rate will ‘spontaneously‘ return to a normal beat but can recur and/or progress into ‘ventricular fibrillation ‘(VF) symptoms which can lead to death, if it persists. It is this ‘return to normal‘ action that has made identifying Torsades difficult.

LQTS heart beat wave patterns
LQTS heart beat wave patterns

Onset Signs and Symptoms

Medical research and studies have shown that people with Torsades have their beginnings with ‘fainting‘ due to a drop in blood pressure causing dizziness . Use of an electrocardiogram (ECG) have revealed a ‘long QT interval’ and another term, ‘Long QT Syndrome‘ (LQTS).

A recording of the heart rate may not reveal Torsades in action but definitely that ‘long QT’ or ‘short variant‘ characteristics of Torsades, help provide clues for physicians and health care professionals.

An ECG showing Torsades in action displays an illusion of a swirled rotation (like a ballet dancers’ pirhouette hence it’s name Pointes) on it’s electrical axis, a long and short RR – interval precedes the arrhythmia and follows a premature ventricular contraction (R-on-T PVC). Other symptoms reported are palpitations, rapid pulse, nausea, cold sweats, lightheadedness (short episode) and outright fainting.

Where Torsades gets Found

Torsades is usually found in people that are malnourished, chronic alcoholics, or with hypokalemia (abnormally low potassium), diarrhea, and/or hypomagnesemia (abnormally low magnesium), heart failure, left ventricular hypertrophy (enlarged left ventricle), bradycardia (slow heart rate), hypothermia and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

It is these symptoms and existing disorders that are critical for a physician or health care team to be aware and identify quickly especially before giving medications, known to trigger Torsades.

Torsades can be found in many age groups. When identified in children, it is congenital and may accompany disorders such as Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, Romano-Ward syndrome and triggered by effects of stress, fear or physical exertion (usually prohibited from competitive sports), whearas in adult years, it is considered acquired.

Treatment and Outcomes

Electrolyte disorders are usually the cause of acquired Torsades and treatable with correcting the imbalance and/or removal of triggering medications.

Treatment for Torsades is available and it’s known there are six different variants of Torsades. Effective treatment will depend on identifying the specific ‘genotype‘ which identifies whether it’s  sodium or potassium channels that are affected.

A family physician may refer their client to a cardiologist, electrophysiologist, or geneticist. Again, failure to identify Torsades has been due to it’s ‘return to normal’ activities and complications of persistent ‘ventricular fibrillations‘ that arise.

Continuous Medical Research

 The existence of Torsades has been known for a few years, and further studies at the molecular and cellular levels have provided leaps forward in better care and treatment. The ‘prevalence‘ of Torsades in the general population is an unknown. Could this be a cause of death for the homeless, mentally or medically challenged people, that have occurred when getting tasered by police?

Learning in Motion

Further Learning Resources

 Drugs with Risk of Torsades de Pointes

 My Majors

 Living with Heart Rhythms

 I hope you found this article informative. Please feel free to leave your comments and Share your friends and family. Use the ‘Ask a Question’ form and Send me request on a topic of interest you have, or to say hello.

 All rights reserved by AIC|An Informal Cornr. Ginsense creates and posts articles about business development, micro business, health, science, technology and society.

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Pope Alexander IV and Inter Caetera Divinai

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History writes that Columbus ‘discovered’ the Americas and the Indigenous peoples while in search for treasures for King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, of Spain.

People seem to forget that the Vikings had been to the East coast of Canada before Columbus found the shores of the Americas.

Columbus landing on the shores of the Americas does set in motion the choice of greed for wealth and power over lives of the Indigenous peoples.

Church and Crown Unity

Spain was part of the ‘mercantile‘ empires and strived for profit brought to the nation more than settlement. They would gain control of mainland South America and also have colonies, in North America located in Florida, Mexico and California.

Upon this ‘discovery‘ of the America’s, other European nations questioned Spain and the legalities, to make such claims of the America’s, due to the ‘potential‘ resources that would fall into control of Spain.

A common practice in Europe, in regards to ‘discoveries of lands and resources‘ was to seek out the advice of the Pope and have ‘Papal Bulls‘ awarding the state, these new lands.

Vatican Rome Italy
Vatican Rome, Italy

Seek Approval from God and Pope

Pope Alexander IV was the reigning head of Church in Spain. He is considered one of the most corrupt Popes yet admired for his diplomatic, political and administrative skills, for avoiding outright wars against the Church.

As a graduate in law and rise through the ranks of Church, thanks to familial ties, along with gaining influence amongst his peers, he would learn to balance and take full advantage, of building the power base of his family, The Borgia’s, with his papal position.

The year of 1455, Pope Nicholas V had issued a Papal Bull called the ‘Romanus Pontifex‘ to Portugal, which awarded permissions to conquer and claim lands of Indigenous peoples NOT subjects of European Christian monarchs.

Following this precedent, Pope Alexander IV met with lawyers and provided the Spanish monarchy, May 4, 1493, with their own Papal Bull, the Inter Caetera Divinai, which would declare the following:

The Pope could place non-Christian peoples under the tutelage and guardianship of the first Christian nation discovering their lands as long as those peoples were reported by the discovering Christian nation to be ‘well disposed to embrace the Christian faith‘.  ~ (‘Our Elders Understand Our Rights’, by Sharon Helen Venne)

The Inter Caetera Divinai papal bull, would lay the foundations, and be applied to all Indigenous peoples, for the next 500 + years. It would be followed by many European nations to treat the Indigenous peoples, as ‘objects‘ rather than as human beings. This treatment still goes on this century in year of 2021.

The papal bull would justify the rationale, that non-Christians could not own lands when faced with Christian sovereigns. Governments in the Americas would commit acts of genocide with impunity and permit settlers to join in the atrocities. This still exists to this day too.

Commencement of Genocide

European colonizers would relocate, displace and strip lands from the Indigenous peoples and deny them basic human rights, and deny Indigenous peoples to govern themselves. It would become the ‘Doctrine of Discovery‘ which would deny recognition of the Indigenous peoples as ‘Nations‘ and be used to make ‘racist laws‘, such as a few of the following, practiced in the United States:

  • Fugitive Slave Law, 1793
  • Indian Removal Act, 1830
  • Slavery, 1500- 1865
  • Suppression of Native American Indian Religion, repealed 1978
  • Anti-Coolie Act, 1862
  • Residential Schools System, 1879-1900
  • Jim Crow Laws, 1876-1965
  • Lynching, 1700-1960

Canada would also enact laws, that were not favorable for their Indigenous peoples and can be found under the Indian Act (IA), 1876, but other laws were also created, to control immigration of the Chinese. They would get some relief after their support in WWII but not Indigenous veterans.

Canadian Aboriginals would continue to suffer with laws designed to continue removing lands and rights even after they had also served in WWII. A few of these laws are as follows:

  • 1881, prohits the sale of agricultural produce by Aboriginals in the Prairie provinces without a permit from an Indian agent. As of 2008, this law still stands in the Indian Act though it’s not enforced.
  • 1885, IA is amended to prevent potlatches and religious ceremonies
  • 1911, IA is amended to allow municipalities and companies to expropriate portions of reserves, without surrender, for roads, railways and other public works. Further amended to allow a Judge to move an entire reserve away from a municipality if it was deemed ‘expedient’. Also known as the ‘Oliver Act’.
  • 1927, IA is amended to prevent anyone, Aboriginal or otherwise, from soliciting funds for Indian legal claims without a special license from the Superintendent-General. It would stop any First Nation from pursuing a land claim.
endgame of genocide
endgame of genocide

Ancient Bull in Modern Societies

Today, the Doctrine of Discovery (adopted in 1823, and) remains part of of laws in the United States of America (USA), as implemented in the Johnson v. McIntosh or the recent Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation (2005) court decisions.

Efforts, by Aboriginals in both USA and Canada along with the Episcopal Church (US and Canada), have been made to request the Pope and Queen of Britain, to revoke the Inter Caetera Divinai papal bull, but are denied.

The reasoning from Church and Crown, it’s considered ‘not juridically valid‘ and remains in existence therefore still endangering Indigenous peoples around the world. Laws are created by governments to ‘legalize‘ land thefts, resource development ON Indigenous homeland remains without permission. For Canada, it’s called the Indian Act (IA).

Society is said to be continuously evolving for a better world. This can be seen with the co-operation between nations (United Nations) and use of diplomacy along with a rise of human rights.

Yet, this particular document, the Inter Caetera Divinai, continues to allow, for continued acts of atrocities and inhumanity, against Indigenous Peoples, right in their own homelands, globally. Do you truly believe that God blesses those who commit crimes against others? Indigenous peoples send Prayers too.

Learning in Motion

Further Reading Resources

Timeline of Efforts/Remove Papal Bulls

Keep Tabs on Parliament

Native American Encyclopedia, USA

I hope you found this article informative. Please feel free to leave your comments and share with your friends and family. Use the ‘Ask a Question’ form to make a request on a topic of your own interest. It is FREE to subscribe to my RSS feed.

An Informal Cornr, all rights reserved. Ginsense writes articles on business skills, development, health, science, technology and society and enjoys advocating for independence, security and a better world for all of us.

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