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Pope Alexander IV and Inter Caetera Divinai

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History writes that Columbus ‘discovered’ the Americas and the Indigenous peoples while in search for treasures for King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, of Spain.

People seem to forget that the Vikings had been to the East coast of Canada before Columbus found the shores of the Americas.

Columbus landing on the shores of the Americas does set in motion the choice of greed for wealth and power over lives of the Indigenous peoples.

Church and Crown Unity

Spain was part of the ‘mercantile‘ empires and strived for profit brought to the nation more than settlement. They would gain control of mainland South America and also have colonies, in North America located in Florida, Mexico and California.

Upon this ‘discovery‘ of the America’s, other European nations questioned Spain and the legalities, to make such claims of the America’s, due to the ‘potential‘ resources that would fall into control of Spain.

A common practice in Europe, in regards to ‘discoveries of lands and resources‘ was to seek out the advice of the Pope and have ‘Papal Bulls‘ awarding the state, these new lands.

Vatican Rome Italy
Vatican Rome, Italy

Seek Approval from God and Pope

Pope Alexander IV was the reigning head of Church in Spain. He is considered one of the most corrupt Popes yet admired for his diplomatic, political and administrative skills, for avoiding outright wars against the Church.

As a graduate in law and rise through the ranks of Church, thanks to familial ties, along with gaining influence amongst his peers, he would learn to balance and take full advantage, of building the power base of his family, The Borgia’s, with his papal position.

The year of 1455, Pope Nicholas V had issued a Papal Bull called the ‘Romanus Pontifex‘ to Portugal, which awarded permissions to conquer and claim lands of Indigenous peoples NOT subjects of European Christian monarchs.

Following this precedent, Pope Alexander IV met with lawyers and provided the Spanish monarchy, May 4, 1493, with their own Papal Bull, the Inter Caetera Divinai, which would declare the following:

The Pope could place non-Christian peoples under the tutelage and guardianship of the first Christian nation discovering their lands as long as those peoples were reported by the discovering Christian nation to be ‘well disposed to embrace the Christian faith‘.  ~ (‘Our Elders Understand Our Rights’, by Sharon Helen Venne)

The Inter Caetera Divinai papal bull, would lay the foundations, and be applied to all Indigenous peoples, for the next 500 + years. It would be followed by many European nations to treat the Indigenous peoples, as ‘objects‘ rather than as human beings. This treatment still goes on this century in year of 2021.

The papal bull would justify the rationale, that non-Christians could not own lands when faced with Christian sovereigns. Governments in the Americas would commit acts of genocide with impunity and permit settlers to join in the atrocities. This still exists to this day too.

Commencement of Genocide

European colonizers would relocate, displace and strip lands from the Indigenous peoples and deny them basic human rights, and deny Indigenous peoples to govern themselves. It would become the ‘Doctrine of Discovery‘ which would deny recognition of the Indigenous peoples as ‘Nations‘ and be used to make ‘racist laws‘, such as a few of the following, practiced in the United States:

  • Fugitive Slave Law, 1793
  • Indian Removal Act, 1830
  • Slavery, 1500- 1865
  • Suppression of Native American Indian Religion, repealed 1978
  • Anti-Coolie Act, 1862
  • Residential Schools System, 1879-1900
  • Jim Crow Laws, 1876-1965
  • Lynching, 1700-1960

Canada would also enact laws, that were not favorable for their Indigenous peoples and can be found under the Indian Act (IA), 1876, but other laws were also created, to control immigration of the Chinese. They would get some relief after their support in WWII but not Indigenous veterans.

Canadian Aboriginals would continue to suffer with laws designed to continue removing lands and rights even after they had also served in WWII. A few of these laws are as follows:

  • 1881, prohits the sale of agricultural produce by Aboriginals in the Prairie provinces without a permit from an Indian agent. As of 2008, this law still stands in the Indian Act though it’s not enforced.
  • 1885, IA is amended to prevent potlatches and religious ceremonies
  • 1911, IA is amended to allow municipalities and companies to expropriate portions of reserves, without surrender, for roads, railways and other public works. Further amended to allow a Judge to move an entire reserve away from a municipality if it was deemed ‘expedient’. Also known as the ‘Oliver Act’.
  • 1927, IA is amended to prevent anyone, Aboriginal or otherwise, from soliciting funds for Indian legal claims without a special license from the Superintendent-General. It would stop any First Nation from pursuing a land claim.
endgame of genocide
endgame of genocide

Ancient Bull in Modern Societies

Today, the Doctrine of Discovery (adopted in 1823, and) remains part of of laws in the United States of America (USA), as implemented in the Johnson v. McIntosh or the recent Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation (2005) court decisions.

Efforts, by Aboriginals in both USA and Canada along with the Episcopal Church (US and Canada), have been made to request the Pope and Queen of Britain, to revoke the Inter Caetera Divinai papal bull, but are denied.

The reasoning from Church and Crown, it’s considered ‘not juridically valid‘ and remains in existence therefore still endangering Indigenous peoples around the world. Laws are created by governments to ‘legalize‘ land thefts, resource development ON Indigenous homeland remains without permission. For Canada, it’s called the Indian Act (IA).

Society is said to be continuously evolving for a better world. This can be seen with the co-operation between nations (United Nations) and use of diplomacy along with a rise of human rights.

Yet, this particular document, the Inter Caetera Divinai, continues to allow, for continued acts of atrocities and inhumanity, against Indigenous Peoples, right in their own homelands, globally. Do you truly believe that God blesses those who commit crimes against others? Indigenous peoples send Prayers too.

Learning in Motion

Further Reading Resources

Timeline of Efforts/Remove Papal Bulls

Keep Tabs on Parliament

Native American Encyclopedia, USA

I hope you found this article informative. Please feel free to leave your comments and share with your friends and family. Use the ‘Ask a Question’ form to make a request on a topic of your own interest. It is FREE to subscribe to my RSS feed.

An Informal Cornr, all rights reserved. Ginsense writes articles on business skills, development, health, science, technology and society and enjoys advocating for independence, security and a better world for all of us.

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How Healthy can you Get?

jump rope exercising

The days recalling our youth and childhood, brings nostalgic memories of those times when we were footloose and fancy free. Life held mysteries and dread, that beckoned us to step a little closer and dare to seek out the answers, or run as quickly as possible, back home.

Which ever choice you made, it required us to move our bodies. Those were days when our energy levels seemed to be unbearable to contain, and moving whether running, skipping, skating, sledding, was fun! So, what the hey happened that has stopped you?

Days of Yesteryear

Days of high school were spent worrying about what others were thinking of us, or learned to care not an iota, about their opinion. Some had greater worries, bad homes, unstable lives, next to the piles of homework our teachers heaped on us every night.

For some teens life was a struggle or battle, to juggle our worries with so many demands depending on our home environments. Not everybody’s life is idyllic or picture perfect as it seems especially in the suburbs.

Yet, some may have managed to be part of their school’s extracurricular activities such as being part of sports, music or hobby teams. Some teens still got to mix fun, into their daily routines.

school recess exercising
school recess exercises

Obesity moved In

Recent news stories have stated that North Americans have quite high levels of obesity. Parents really should take note to observe their family’s over all activities. There may be quite a few latch-key children that parents prefer to be home or some may allow their child(ren) to be part of their school’s extracurricular activities. Today’s society does require parents ensure the safety and security of their child(ren).

Parents can still provide activities for their children, and teach them early on how to learn and maintain their health. I would highly recommend sitting down together and having a discussion about long term health and importance of staying active.

Active Living Plan

Brainstorm idea’s together, which can be applied. It can start with taking a drive to the nearest park in winters and tobogganing, going out skating, hiking through a national park, swimming at the local public pool, biking through the neighborhood.

fun exercise planning
family exercise planning

The simplest of activities that are great can be walking and dancing. One can add investing in small dumbbells, a skipping rope, and even ankle weights. It’s said that the amount of calories you take in with eating should equal the amount of calories you burn.

A little online research will reveal just how many calories we consume with our diets, as there is a lot of information available. Note the following chart in regards to calories that can be burned with walking at a comfortable pace of 2 m/hr.

Exercise and Calorie Burn Charts

Weight Est. Calorie Burn 30 Minutes

150

105

X

200

145

X

150

180

X

2

200

115

X

350

250

X

400

285

X

 Now, let’s take a look at hiking and how many calories can be burned not to forget, it’s fun! A hilly landscape would burn more. Additional fun would include bringing along your camera, some water and dress appropriately. Good footwear is important and pay attention to your local weather report.

Weight Est. Calorie Burn 30 Minutes

150

215

X

200

285

X

250

360

X

300

430

X

350

500

X

400

575

X

Minding the Calculations of Time

I also have to add here that you can still accomplish the numbers of calorie burning with whatever method you choose. If you split the 30 minutes into two, you have 15 minutes one direction and return trip home, will give you that 30 minutes. A straight 30 minutes one way and another 30 minutes return home will double your number. Got to keep the math in mind.

The following chart reveals just how many calories is burned with my own various exercise activities. Note that they are a MIX of activities. I stand at 5’8 and my weight ranges from 145 – 155 lbs. It doesn’t include my running up and down the stairs with ankle weights and totally missed including the jumping rope exercise.

I don’t even do these exercises all at once but only in quick five minute intervals (except my canoe outings!) throughout my day, since I do work and have parental responsibilities too. A life of leisure sounds great but I get bored too easily.

acalburn

Keep Healthy Foods in your Diet

Diet plays a large part here too. I eat a lot of foods that many, including my own sons, is considered, too healthy. They run away to their extended families some days, yes but I do cook meals they love also. The following chart shows the calories of some of the foods that my own diet provides. Yes, I always have a side of veggies and fruit too. I don’t always eat healthy 24/7/364 either! shhh 😉

Food

Calories

Gram of Fat

McDonalds Salad w/ Ranch

310

23

Chicken Salad, 1 cup

360

18

Steak, 4 oz

218

7

Tuna, in water

110

Trace

Peanut Butter Jelly sandwich

330

15

Bran muffin

140

6

Eggs, boiled, poached

140

12

Vegetable soup

80

2

Regular but not Perfect

Moderation is said to be KEY to maintaining one’s weight with diet. As you can see with the above chart, I don’t totally stay away from ‘bad’ foods. I get my cravings too especially for chocolate. One just has to learn to mix the healthy foods into their diet and practice self-discipline with the ‘bad’ foods then balance it with exercise.

I do this due to a heart defect and recent diagnosis of pre-diabetes. Between my diet and exercise, I get great reports from my doctor. It can be a struggle but at least once you learn, healthy practices can become habit and your children will greatly benefit, for the rest of their lives. So, how healthy do you want to get?

Learning in Motion

Extra Resources

Calorie Calculator

Calorie Burn Calculator

Food Calorie and Nutrition Chart

An Informal Cornr, all rights reserved. Ginsense writes articles on business skills, development, health, science, technology and society and enjoys advocating for independence, security and a better world for all of us.

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A Peculiar Gift Saving Laundry Costs

laundry costs

A look around our communities, large and small, in the city and rural towns, we will find a coin operated laundromat. They can also provide for an interesting business opportunity with success depending upon location and numbers of the local population.

The task of doing laundry has been around since, well, medieval times. Offering laundry services was started by Chinese immigrants, in the early industrial age. They are given credit for ‘commercializing’ laundry services.

Modern day now we even have the options for a peculiar gift saving in laundry costs. Who doesn’t want savings?

Updating to Save Costs

I believe, if we could attach a hybrid wind and solar system to generate electrical power, and still remain part of the regular power grid, we could save a lot in the costs of power these laundry machines require to operate next to all our other appliances. Anything with a motor takes a ‘surge’ of power during it’s cycle.

Any extra power the hybrid system generates (especially after hours!) could be fed back into the regular power grid and they could receive discounts or at least, get lower electrical bills. I don’t know about you but I find bills are on the rise. Maybe we’ll get ‘billed’ right out of our homes?

Dirt Invites Germs and Odors

The duty of cleaning our clothes and various home decor items such as bedding, draperies and even carpets, requires washing. Cleaning these items helps to remove odors, dirt and grime that collects from daily use and/or exposure.

After all, we don’t want to be wearing, smelling or living with ‘germs’ that would gladly start growing especially if there’s a ready supply of water, food and oxygen available for them. I don’t think they have to worry about laundry costs either.

Do you follow the money?

Today’s high costs of living can make buying a washing machine and dryer, quite prohibitive and outright difficult, for others. A cycle exists where the power companies raise their costs, trickles to affect business owners who in turn, raise their prices, for the customer.

Electrical power plants have costs rise due to getting a business loan to expand, replace or repair existing equipment,and to provide for a larger, growing population market.

A business raises their prices to meet their own costs, and new power consumption which the public pays for, in the purchase of services or products. It would be nice to live in a society where one can learn to reduce costs in their business cycle rather than believe raising prices is the only route. Can you imagine living without having to pay huge monthly bills?

power meters
residential energy meters

Creating Services for Customers to Save

Fortunately for us, we do have people who realize this situation and come up with brilliant or strange alternatives, to help us save money. As we know, using the local laundromat requires ;

  • first having one that exists
  • secondly, the money for use of the coin operated machines
  • time, energy and distance to travel

These are factors to consider. It is nice that some laundromats offer the extra service of doing your laundry, and all you have to do is drop off and pick up, as long as you’re able to afford the extra cost.

Odd and Peculiar laundry methods

One idea that’s been popular has been the ‘bicycle powered‘ washing machine.

This requires a stationary bicycle, of course, which attaches to the ‘rotor’ of the washing machine. You will have to get on the bicycle and pedal to get the machine to work. This is great exercise to do for your health next to getting clean clothes.

Some of this ‘re-building’ isn’t for actual washing either but only for the ‘spin’ cycle. This would also require having the space for such a project. I suggest ensuring proper research is done to see if this project would fit your lifestyle or addition for the cabin?

An article done by ‘Inhabitat‘ had written about a bicycle powered washing machine done by ‘Cyclean‘, back in 2007. Current online searches for this name does not turn up any further news. As mentioned in this article , the potential of commercializing this project could be huge. I would recommend that he write a book, to assemble this project. Would you buy it?

woman washing clothes in bucket
woman laundering with washboard

To Buy or Build but Save money

Alternative idea’s to having your own washing machine and dryer is to purchase ‘apartment’ or for RV (recreational vehicles) sized models. These are good for smaller dwellings, RV’s, and apartments.

A search on Youtube and you’ll find other versions, and interesting DIY project idea alternatives to yes, do your laundry. No kneeling by the river, smacking clothes on the rocks to get rid of dirt and grime. One practice that’s held true about doing laundry. Some of us may still enjoy hanging our clothes out on the line to dry? the smell once air dried is … just beautiful.

Costs to purchase are also about half or less compared to full size models. Their size is smaller and more compact therefore also serve only smaller loads. This is good for the single person, students or couples but again, helps save money in purchasing costs. A great gift for those living frugally, or a limited income.

Extra Reading

Sepgo Online

HSU Bike powered washing machine

Manual Washing Machine

Active Learning – Watch!

solar powered washer spinner for laundry

I hope you found this article informative. Please feel free to leave your comments and share your own observations or experiences. Use the ‘Ask a Question’ form on a topic of your own interest. It is FREE to subscribe by email or RSS feed.

AIC|An Informal Cornr, all rights reserved. Ginsense writes articles on business skills, development, health, science, technology and society and enjoys advocating for independence, security and a better world for all of us.

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