Tag Archives: history of genocide

Pope Alexander IV and Inter Caetera Divinai

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History writes that Columbus ‘discovered’ the Americas and the Indigenous peoples while in search for treasures for King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, of Spain.

People seem to forget that the Vikings had been to the East coast of Canada before Columbus found the shores of the Americas.

Columbus landing on the shores of the Americas does set in motion the choice of greed for wealth and power over lives of the Indigenous peoples.

Church and Crown Unity

Spain was part of the ‘mercantile‘ empires and strived for profit brought to the nation more than settlement. They would gain control of mainland South America and also have colonies, in North America located in Florida, Mexico and California.

Upon this ‘discovery‘ of the America’s, other European nations questioned Spain and the legalities, to make such claims of the America’s, due to the ‘potential‘ resources that would fall into control of Spain.

A common practice in Europe, in regards to ‘discoveries of lands and resources‘ was to seek out the advice of the Pope and have ‘Papal Bulls‘ awarding the state, these new lands.

Vatican Rome Italy
Vatican Rome, Italy

Seek Approval from God and Pope

Pope Alexander IV was the reigning head of Church in Spain. He is considered one of the most corrupt Popes yet admired for his diplomatic, political and administrative skills, for avoiding outright wars against the Church.

As a graduate in law and rise through the ranks of Church, thanks to familial ties, along with gaining influence amongst his peers, he would learn to balance and take full advantage, of building the power base of his family, The Borgia’s, with his papal position.

The year of 1455, Pope Nicholas V had issued a Papal Bull called the ‘Romanus Pontifex‘ to Portugal, which awarded permissions to conquer and claim lands of Indigenous peoples NOT subjects of European Christian monarchs.

Following this precedent, Pope Alexander IV met with lawyers and provided the Spanish monarchy, May 4, 1493, with their own Papal Bull, the Inter Caetera Divinai, which would declare the following:

The Pope could place non-Christian peoples under the tutelage and guardianship of the first Christian nation discovering their lands as long as those peoples were reported by the discovering Christian nation to be ‘well disposed to embrace the Christian faith‘.  ~ (‘Our Elders Understand Our Rights’, by Sharon Helen Venne)

The

endgame of genocide
endgame of genocide

Ancient Bull in Modern Societies

Today, the Doctrine of Discovery (adopted in 1823, and) remains part of of laws in the United States of America (USA), as implemented in the Johnson v. McIntosh or the recent Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation (2005) court decisions.

Efforts, by Aboriginals in both USA and Canada along with the Episcopal Church (US and Canada), have been made to request the Pope and Queen of Britain, to revoke the Inter Caetera Divinai papal bull, but are denied.

The reasoning from Church and Crown, it’s considered ‘not juridically valid‘ and remains in existence therefore still endangering Indigenous peoples around the world. Laws are created by governments to ‘legalize‘ land thefts, resource development ON Indigenous homeland remains without permission. For Canada, it’s called the Indian Act (IA).

Society is said to be continuously evolving for a better world. This can be seen with the co-operation between nations (United Nations) and use of diplomacy along with a rise of human rights.

Yet, this particular document, the Inter Caetera Divinai, continues to allow, for continued acts of atrocities and inhumanity, against Indigenous Peoples, right in their own homelands, globally. Do you truly believe that God blesses those who commit crimes against others? Indigenous peoples send Prayers too.

Learning in Motion

Further Reading Resources

Timeline of Efforts/Remove Papal Bulls

Keep Tabs on Parliament

Native American Encyclopedia, USA

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An Informal Cornr, all rights reserved. Ginsense writes articles on business skills, development, health, science, technology and society and enjoys advocating for independence, security and a better world for all of us.

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